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The Department's buildings are currently open for wet laboratory work only. We have carried out a comprehensive COVID-19 risk assessment process and have introduced a number of new measures to ensure the safety of our staff, including reduced building occupancy, strict social distancing, 'family'-based working, and increased cleaning and hygiene regimes. All staff who can work remotely will do so for the foreseeable future. Please continue to contact us by email until further notice.

Department of Biochemistry



For the very latest publications check on PubMed through this link (opens a new window).


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Miton, C. M.; Jonas, S.; Fischer, G.; Duarte, F.; Mohamed, M. F.; van Loo, B.; Kintes, B.; Kamerlin, S. C. L.; Tokuriki, N.; Hyvönen, M.; Hollfelder, F. Evolutionary repurposing of a sulfatase: A new Michaelis complex leads to efficient transition state charge offset. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci USA 2018, 201607817. Read online


van Loo, B.; Schober, M.; Valkov, E.; Heberlein, M.; Bornberg-Bauer, E.; Faber, K.; Hyvönen, M.; Hollfelder, F. Structural and Mechanistic Analysis of the Choline Sulfatase from Sinorhizobium melliloti: A Class I Sulfatase Specific for an Alkyl Sulfate Ester. Journal of Molecular Biology 2018, 430(7): 1004-1023. Read online


Bilsland, E.; van Vliet, L.; Williams, K.; Feltham, J.; Carrasco, M.P.; Fotoran, W.L.; Cubillos, E.F.G.; Wunderlich, G; Grøtli, M.; Hollfelder, F.; Jackson, V.; King, R.D.; Oliver, S.G. Plasmodium dihydrofolate reductase is a second enzyme target for the antimalarial action of triclosan. Scientific Reports 2018, 8(1):1038. Read online


Gielen, F.; Colin, P.Y.; Mair, P.; Hollfelder, F. Ultrahigh-Throughput Screening of Single-Cell Lysates for Directed Evolution and Functional Metagenomics. Methods Mol Biol. 2018, 1685:297-309. Read online


Sum, T.H.; Sum, T.J.; Collins, S.; Galloway, W.R.J.D.; Twigg, D.G.; Hollfelder, F.; Spring, D.R., Divergent synthesis of biflavonoids yields novel inhibitors of the aggregation of amyloid β (1-42). Org. Biomol. Chem. 2017, 15, 4554-4570 . Read online


Bayer, C.D.; van Loo, B.; Hollfelder, F., Specificity Effects of Amino Acid Substitutions in Promiscuous Hydrolases: Context-Dependence of Catalytic Residue Contributions to Local Fitness Landscapes in Nearby Sequence Space. ChemBiochem 2017, 18(1), 1001–1015. Read online


Heitz, M.; Kwok, A.; Eggimann, G.A.; Hollfelder, F.; Darbre, T.; Reymond, J.L., Peptide Dendrimer-Lipid Conjugates as DNA and siRNA Transfection Reagents: Role of Charge Distribution Across Generations. CHIMIA International Journal for Chemistry 2017, 71(4), 220-225. Read online


Mair, P.; Gielen, F.; Hollfelder, F., Exploring sequence space in search of functional enzymes using microfluidic droplets. Curr Opin Chem Biol 2017, 37, 137-44. Read online


Gielen, F.; Butz, M.; Rees, E.J.; Erdelyi, M.; Moschetti, T.; Hyvönen, M.; Edel, J.B.; Kaminski, C.F.; Hollfelder, F., Quantitative Affinity Determination by Fluorescence Anisotropy Measurements of Individual Nanoliter Droplets. Anal Chem. 2017, 89(2), 1092-1101. Read online



Kwok, A.; Eggimann, G.A.; Heitz, M.; Reymond, J. L.; Hollfelder, F.; Darbre, T., Efficient Transfection of siRNA by Peptide Dendrimer–Lipid Conjugates. ChemBioChem 2016, 17(23), 2223–2229. Read online


Gielen, F.; Hours, R.; Emond, S.; Fischlechner, M.; Schell, U.; Hollfelder, F., Ultrahigh-throughput-directed enzyme evolution by absorbance-activated droplet sorting (AADS). Proc. Natl Acad. Sci USA 2016, 113(47), E7383-E7389. Read online


Mankowska, S.A.; Gatti-Lafranconi, P.; Chodorge, M.; Sridharan, S.; Minter, R.R.; Hollfelder, F., A Shorter Route to Antibody Binders via Quantitative in vitro Bead-Display Screening and Consensus Analysis. Scientific Reports 2016, 6: 36391. Read online


Kaltenbach, M.; Emond, S.; Hollfelder, F.; Tokuriki, N., Functional trade-offs in promiscuous enzymes cannot be explained by intrinsic mutational robustness of the native activity. PLOS Genetics 2016, 12(10): e1006305. Read online


Sum, T.H.; Sum, T.J.; Galloway, W.R.; Collins, S.; Twigg, D.G.; Hollfelder, F; Spring, D.R., Combinatorial Synthesis of Structurally Diverse Triazole-Bridged Flavonoid Dimers and Trimers. Molecules 2016, 21(9), 1230. Read online


Campbell, E. C.; Kaltenbach, M.; Correy, G.J.; Carr, P.D.; Porebski, B.T.; Livingstone, E.K.; Afriat-Jurnou, L.; Buckle, A.M.; Weik, M.; Hollfelder, F.; Tokuriki, N.; Jackson, C.J., The role of protein dynamics in the evolution of new enzyme function. Nature Chemical Biology 2016, 12(11), 944-950. Read online



Colin, P.Y.; Kintses, B.; Gielen, F.; Miton, C.M.; Fischer, G.; Mohamed, M.F.; Hyvönen, M.; Morgavi, D.P.; Janssen, D.B.; Hollfelder, F., Ultrahigh-throughput discovery of promiscuous enzymes by picodroplet functional metagenomics. Nature Communications 2015, 6:10008. Read online


Urbach, C.; Gordon, N.C.; Strickland, I.; Lowne, D.; Joberty-Candotti, C.; May, R.; Herath, A.; Hijnen, D.; Thijs, J.L.; Bruijnzeel-Koomen C.A.; Minter, R.R.; Hollfelder, F.; Jermutus, L., Combinatorial Screening Identifies Novel Promiscuous Matrix Metalloproteinase Activities that Lead to Inhibition of the Therapeutic Target IL-13. Chem Biol 2015, 22(11), 1442-1452. Read online


Fradet, E.; Bayer, C.D.; Hollfelder, F.; Baroud, C.N., Measuring fast and slow enzyme kinetics in stationary droplets. Anal Chem 2015, 87(23), 11915–11922. Read online


Colin, P.Y.; Zinchenko, A.; Hollfelder, F., Enzyme engineering in biomimetic compartments. Curr Opin Struct Biol 2015, 33, 42-51. Read online


Kaltenbach, M.; Jackson, C.J.; Campbell, E. C.; Hollfelder, F., Tokuriki, N., Reverse evolution leads to genotypic incompatibility despite functional and active-site convergence. Elife 2015, eLife06492. Read online


Houlihan, G.; Gatti-Lafranconi, P.; Lowe, D.; Hollfelder, F., Directed evolution of anti-HER2 DARPins by SNAP display reveals stability/function trade-offs in the selection process. Protein Eng Des Sel 2015, 28(9), 269-279. Read online


Shafee, T.; Gatti-Lafranconi, P.; Minter, R.; Hollfelder, F., Handicap-recover evolution leads to a chemically versatile, nucleophile-permissive protease. ChemBioChem 2015, 16(13), 1866–1869. Read online


van Vliet, L. D.; Colin, P.Y.; Hollfelder, F., Bioinspired genotype–phenotype linkages: mimicking cellular compartmentalization for the engineering of functional proteins.  Interface Focus 2015, 5(4), 20150035. Read online


Chen, W.; Avezov, E.; Schlachter, S. C.; Gielen, F.; Laine, R. F.; Harding, H. P.; Hollfelder, F.; Ron, D.; Kaminski, C. F., A method to quantify FRET stoichiometry with phasor plot analysis and acceptor lifetime in growth. Biophys J. 2015, 108(5), 999-1002. Read online


Gielen, F.; Buryska, T.; Van Vliet ,L.; Butz, M.; Damborsky, J.; Prokop, Z.; Hollfelder, F., Interfacing microwells with nanoliter compartments: a sampler generating high-resolution concentration gradients for quantitative biochemical analyses in droplets. Anal Chem. 2015, 87(1), 624-32. Read online



Zinchenko, A.; Devenish, S. R.; Kintses, B.; Colin, P. Y.; Fischlechner, M.; Hollfelder, F., One in a Million: Flow Cytometric Sorting of Single Cell-Lysate Assays in Monodisperse Picolitre Double Emulsion Droplets for Directed Evolution. Anal Chem 2014, 86 (5), 2526-33. Read online


Villiers, B.; Hollfelder, F., USER friendly DNA recombination (USERec): gene library construction requiring minimal sequence homology. Methods Mol Biol 2014, 1179, 213-24. Read online


Houlihan, G.; Gatti-Lafranconi, P.; Kaltenbach, M.; Lowe, D.; Hollfelder, F., An experimental framework for improved selection of binding proteins using SNAP display. J Immunol Methods 2014,  (405), 47-56. Read online


Fischlechner, M.; Schaerli, Y.; Mohamed, M. F.; Patil, S.; Abell, C.; Hollfelder, F., Evolution of enzyme catalysts caged in biomimetic gel-shell beads. Nat Chem 2014, 6 (9), 791-6. Read online



Yan, J.; Bauer, W. A. C.; Fischlechner, M.; Hollfelder, F.; Kaminski, C. F.; Huck, W. T. S., Monodisperse Water-in-Oil-in-Water (W/O/W) Double Emulsion Droplets as Uniform Compartments for High-Throughput Analysis via Flow Cytometry. Micromachines 2013, 4 (4), 402-413. Read online


Shim, J. U.; Ranasinghe, R. T.; Smith, C. A.; Ibrahim, S. M.; Hollfelder, F.; Huck, W. T.; Klenerman, D.; Abell, C., Ultrarapid generation of femtoliter microfluidic droplets for single-molecule-counting immunoassays. ACS Nano 2013, 7 (7), 5955-64. Read online


Schober, M.; Toesch, M.; Knaus, T.; Strohmeier, G. A.; van Loo, B.; Fuchs, M.; Hollfelder, F.; Macheroux, P.; Faber, K., One-pot deracemization of sec-alcohols: enantioconvergent enzymatic hydrolysis of alkyl sulfates using stereocomplementary sulfatases. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2013, 52 (11), 3277-9. Read online


Mohamed, M. F.; Hollfelder, F., Efficient, crosswise catalytic promiscuity among enzymes that catalyze phosphoryl transfer. Biochim Biophys Acta 2013, 1834 (1), 417-24. Read online


Kwok, A.; Eggimann, G. A.; Reymond, J. L.; Darbre, T.; Hollfelder, F., Peptide dendrimer/lipid hybrid systems are efficient DNA transfection reagents: structure--activity relationships highlight the role of charge distribution across dendrimer generations. ACS Nano 2013, 7 (5), 4668-82. Read online


Houlihan, G.; Lowe, D.; Hollfelder, F., SNAP display - an in vitro method for the selection of protein binders. Curr Pharm Des 2013, 19 (30), 5421-8. Read online


Hollfelder, F.; Lutz, S., Just (protein) engineering? Curr Opin Struct Biol 2013, 23 (4), 569-70. Read online


Goldsworthy, M.; Absalom, N. L.; Schroter, D.; Matthews, H. C.; Bogani, D.; Moir, L.; Long, A.; Church, C.; Hugill, A.; Anstee, Q. M.; Goldin, R.; Thursz, M.; Hollfelder, F.; Cox, R. D., Mutations in Mll2, an H3K4 methyltransferase, result in insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance in mice. PLoS One 2013, 8 (6), e61870. Read online


Gielen, F.; van Vliet, L.; Koprowski, B. T.; Devenish, S. R.; Fischlechner, M.; Edel, J. B.; Niu, X.; deMello, A. J.; Hollfelder, F., A fully unsupervised compartment-on-demand platform for precise nanoliter assays of time-dependent steady-state enzyme kinetics and inhibition. Anal Chem 2013, 85 (9), 4761-9. Read online


Gatti-Lafranconi, P.; Hollfelder, F., Flexibility and reactivity in promiscuous enzymes. Chembiochem 2013, 14 (3), 285-92. Read online


Gatti-Lafranconi, P.; Dijkman, W. P.; Devenish, S. R.; Hollfelder, F., A single mutation in the core domain of the lac repressor reduces leakiness. Microb Cell Fact 2013, 12, 67. Read online


Diamante, L.; Gatti-Lafranconi, P.; Schaerli, Y.; Hollfelder, F., In vitro affinity screening of protein and peptide binders by megavalent bead surface display. Protein Eng Des Sel 2013, 26 (10), 713-24. Read online


Devenish, S. R.; Kaltenbach, M.; Fischlechner, M.; Hollfelder, F., Droplets as reaction compartments for protein nanotechnology. Methods Mol Biol 2013, 996, 269-86. Read online

2012 (back to top)


Stein, V.; Kaltenbach, M.; Hollfelder, F., Assembling linear DNA templates for in vitro transcription and translation. Methods Mol Biol (Functional Genomics: Methods and Protocols) 2012, 815, 67-78. Read online


Schaerli, Y.; Kintses, B.; Hollfelder, F., Protein Engineering in Microdroplets. In Protein Engineering Handbook, Lutz, S.; Bornscheuer, U. T., Eds. Wiley VCH: Weinheim, 2012; Vol. 3, pp 73-85.


Kintses, B.; Hein, C.; Mohamed, M. F.; Fischlechner, M.; Courtois, F.; Laine, C.; Hollfelder, F., Picoliter cell lysate assays in microfluidic droplet compartments for directed enzyme evolution. Chem Biol 2012, 19 (8), 1001-9. Read online


Kaltenbach, M.; Hollfelder, F., SNAP display: in vitro protein evolution in microdroplets. Methods Mol Biol (Ribosome Display and Related Technologies: Methods and Protocols) 2012, 805, 101-11. Read online


Kaltenbach, M.; Devenish, S. R.; Hollfelder, F., A simple method to evaluate the biochemical compatibility of oil/surfactant mixtures for experiments in microdroplets. Lab Chip 2012, 12 (20), 4185-92. Read online


Delley, R. J.; Bandyopadhyay, S.; Fox, M. A.; Schliehe, C.; Hodgson, D. R.; Hollfelder, F.; Kirby, A. J.; O'Donoghue, A. C., peri-Dimethylamino substituent effects on proton transfer at carbon in alpha-naphthylacetate esters: a model for mandelate racemase. Org Biomol Chem 2012, 10 (3), 590-6. Read online


Babtie, A. C.; Lima, M. F.; Kirby, A. J.; Hollfelder, F., Kinetic and computational evidence for an intermediate in the hydrolysis of sulfonate esters. Org Biomol Chem 2012. Read online

2011 (back to top)


Villiers, B.; Hollfelder, F., Directed evolution of a gatekeeper domain in nonribosomal peptide synthesis. Chem Biol 2011, 18 (10), 1290-9. Read online


Shim, J. U.; Patil, S. N.; Hodgkinson, J. T.; Bowden, S. D.; Spring, D. R.; Welch, M.; Huck, W. T.; Hollfelder, F.; Abell, C., Controlling the contents of microdroplets by exploiting the permeability of PDMS. Lab Chip 2011, 11 (6), 1132-7. Read online


Kaltenbach, M.; Stein, V.; Hollfelder, F., SNAP dendrimers: multivalent protein display on dendrimer-like DNA for directed evolution. Chembiochem 2011, 12 (14), 2208-16. Read online


Huebner, A. M.; Abell, C.; Huck, W. T.; Baroud, C. N.; Hollfelder, F., Monitoring a reaction at submillisecond resolution in picoliter volumes. Anal Chem 2011, 83 (4), 1462-8. Read online


Hollfelder, F., From fascination to function. Curr Opin Biotechnol 2011, 22 (4), 473-4. Read online

2010 (back to top)


Villiers, B. R.; Stein, V.; Hollfelder, F., USER friendly DNA recombination (USERec): a simple and flexible near homology-independent method for gene library construction. Protein Eng Des Sel 2010, 23 (1), 1-8. Read online


van Loo, B.; Jonas, S.; Babtie, A. C.; Benjdia, A.; Berteau, O.; Hyvönen, M.; Hollfelder, F., An efficient, multiply promiscuous hydrolase in the alkaline phosphatase superfamily. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci USA 2010, 107 (7), 2740-5. Read online


van Loo, B.; Hollfelder, F., Enzyme promiscuity and evolution of new protein functions. In Manual of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, 3rd ed.; Zhao, H., Ed. American Society for Microbiology: Washington, 2010; Vol. 3rd, pp 524-538.


Theberge, A. B.; Courtois, F.; Schaerli, Y.; Fischlechner, M.; Abell, C.; Hollfelder, F.; Huck, W. T., Microdroplets in microfluidics: an evolving platform for discoveries in chemistry and biology. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2010, 49 (34), 5846-68. Read online


Schaerli, Y.; Stein, V.; Spiering, M. M.; Benkovic, S. J.; Abell, C.; Hollfelder, F., Isothermal DNA amplification using the T4 replisome: circular nicking endonuclease-dependent amplification and primase-based whole-genome amplification. Nucleic Acids Res 2010, 38 (22), e201. Read online


O’Brien, P. J.; Hollfelder, F., Hitting a moving target?—understanding how conformational diversity impacts enzymatic catalysis. Curr. Op. Chem. Biol. 2010, 14 (5), 634-5. Read online


Kintses, B.; van Vliet, L. D.; Devenish, S. R.; Hollfelder, F., Microfluidic droplets: new integrated workflows for biological experiments. Curr Opin Chem Biol 2010, 14 (5), 548-55. Read online


Bai, Y.; He, X.; Liu, D.; Patil, S. N.; Bratton, D.; Huebner, A.; Hollfelder, F.; Abell, C.; Huck, W. T. S., A double droplet trap system for studying mass transport across a droplet-droplet interface. Lab Chip 2010, 10 (10), 1281-5. Read online


Babtie, A. C.; Tokuriki, N.; Hollfelder, F., What makes an enzyme promiscuous? Curr. Op. Chem. Biol 2010, 14 (2), 200-7. Read online

2009 (back to top)


Villiers, B. R. M.; Hollfelder, F., Mapping the Limits of Substrate Specificity of the Adenylation Domain of TycA. Chembiochem 2009, 10 (4), 671-682. Read online


Stein, V.; Hollfelder, F., An efficient method to assemble linear DNA templates for in vitro screening and selection systems. Nucleic Acids Res 2009, 37 (18), e122. Read online


Shim, J. U.; Olguin, L. F.; Whyte, G.; Scott, D.; Babtie, A.; Abell, C.; Huck, W. T.; Hollfelder, F., Simultaneous determination of gene expression and enzymatic activity in individual bacterial cells in microdroplet compartments. J Am Chem Soc 2009, 131 (42), 15251-6. Read online


Schaerli, Y.; Wootton, R. C.; Robinson, T.; Stein, V.; Dunsby, C.; Neil, M. A. A.; French, P. M. W.; deMello, A. J.; Abell, C.; Hollfelder, F., Continuous-Flow Polymerase Chain Reaction of Single-Copy DNA in Microfluidic Microdroplets. Analytical Chemistry 2009, 81 (1), 302-306. Read online


Schaerli, Y.; Hollfelder, F., The potential of microfluidic water-in-oil droplets in experimental biology. Mol Bio Sys 2009, 5 (12), 1392-404. Read online


Robinson, T.; Schaerli, Y.; Wootton, R.; Hollfelder, F.; Dunsby, C.; Baldwin, G.; Neil, M.; French, P.; Demello, A., Removal of background signals from fluorescence thermometry measurements in PDMS microchannels using fluorescence lifetime imaging. Lab Chip 2009, 9 (23), 3437-41. Read online


Kirby, A. J.; Hollfelder, F., From Enzyme Models to Model Enzymes. Royal Society of Chemistry Cambridge, 2009; p 228. Read online


Kaltenbach, M.; Schärli, Y.; Hollfelder, F., Microdroplets - A Tool for Protein Engineering. BioForum 2009, 13, 19-21.


Jonas, S.; Hollfelder, F., Mapping catalytic promiscuity in the alkaline phosphatase superfamily. Pure and Applied Chemistry 2009, 81 (4), 731-742. Read online


Hufnagel, H.; Huebner, A.; Gulch, C.; Guse, K.; Abell, C.; Hollfelder, F., An integrated cell culture lab on a chip: modular microdevices for cultivation of mammalian cells and delivery into microfluidic microdroplets. Lab on a Chip 2009, 9 (11), 1576-1582. Read online


Hufnagel, H.; Hakim, P.; Lima, A.; Hollfelder, F., Fluid Phase Endocytosis Contributes to Transfection of DNA by PEI-25. Mol. Therapy 2009, 17 (8), 1411-7. Read online


Huebner, A.; Bratton, D.; Whyte, G.; Yang, M.; deMello, A. J.; Abell, C.; Hollfelder, F., Static microdroplet arrays: a microfluidic device for droplet trapping, incubation and release for enzymatic and cell-based assays. Lab on a Chip 2009, 9 (5), 692-698. Read online


Golicnik, M.; Olguin, L. F.; Feng, G.; Baxter, N. J.; Waltho, J. P.; Williams, N. H.; Hollfelder, F., Kinetic analysis of beta-phosphoglucomutase and its inhibition by magnesium fluoride. J Am Chem Soc 2009, 131 (4), 1575-88. Read online


Damean, N.; Olguin, L. F.; Hollfelder, F.; Abell, C.; Huck, W. T. S., Simultaneous measurement of reactions in microdroplets filled by concentration gradients. Lab on a Chip 2009, 9 (12), 1707-1713. Read online


Courtois, F.; Olguin, L. F.; Whyte, G.; Theberge, A. B.; Huck, W. T. S.; Hollfelder, F.; Abell, C., Controlling the Retention of Small Molecules in Emulsion Microdroplets for Use in Cell-Based Assays. Analytical Chemistry 2009, 81 (8), 3008-3016. Read online


Courtois, F.; Huebner, A.; Stein, V.; Olguin, L.; Hollfelder, F., Towards biological experimentation in microfluidic microdroplets. La Houille Blanche 2009, 5, 127-133. Read online


Babtie, A. C.; Bandyopadhyay, S.; Olguin, L. F.; Hollfelder, F., Efficient Catalytic Promiscuity for Chemically Distinct Reactions. Angewandte Chemie-International Edition 2009, 48 (20), 3692-3694. Read online


Avenier, F.; Hollfelder, F., Combining Medium Effects and Cofactor Catalysis: Metal-Coordinated Synzymes Accelerate Phosphate Transfer by 10(8). Chemistry-a European Journal 2009, 15 (45), 12371-12380. Read online

2008 (back to top)


Van Vliet, L. D.; Chapman, M. R.; Avenier, F.; Kitson, C. Z.; Hollfelder, F., Relating chemical and biological diversity space: A tunable system for efficient gene transfection. Chembiochem 2008, 9 (12), 1960-1967. Read online


Shim, J. U.; Olguin, L.; Hollfelder, F.; Abell, C.; Huck, W., Cell based biological assays using microfluidics. Ekc2008: Proceedings of the Eu-Korea Conference on Science and Technology 2008, 124, 499-502. Read online


Olguin, L. F.; Askew, S. E.; O'Donoghue, A. C.; Hollfelder, F., Efficient Catalytic Promiscuity in an Enzyme Superfamily: An Arylsulfatase Shows a Rate Acceleration of 10(13) for Phosphate Monoester Hydrolysis. Journal of the American Chemical Society 2008, 130 (49), 16547-16555. Read online


Leemhuis, H.; Packman, L. C.; Nightingale, K. P.; Hollfelder, F., The human histone acetyltransferase P/CAF is a promiscuous histone propionyltransferase. Chembiochem 2008, 9 (4), 499-503. Read online


Leemhuis, H.; Nightingale, K. P.; Hollfelder, F., Directed evolution of a histone acetyltransferase - enhancing thermostability, whilst maintaining catalytic activity and substrate specificity. The FEBS Journal 2008, 275 (22), 5635-5647. Read online


Kirby, A. J.; Hollfelder, F., Biochemistry: Enzymes under the nanoscope. Nature 2008, 456 (7218), 45. Read online


Jonas, S.; van Loo, B.; Hyvonen, M.; Hollfelder, F., A New Member of the Alkaline Phosphatase Superfamily with a Formylglycine Nucleophile: Structural and Kinetic Characterisation of a Phosphonate Monoester Hydrolase/Phosphodiesterase from Rhizobium leguminosarum. Journal of Molecular Biology 2008, 384 (1), 120-136. Read online


Jonas, S.; Hollfelder, F., Mechanism and Catalytic Promiscuity: Emerging Mechanistic Principles for Identification and Manipulation of Catalytically Promiscuous Enzymes. In The Handbook of Protein Engineering, Bornscheuer, U. T.; Lutz, S., Eds. Wiley-VCH: Chichester, 2008; Vol. 1, pp 47–72. Read online


Huebner, A.; Sharma, S.; Srisa-Art, M.; Hollfelder, F.; Edel, J. B.; Demello, A. J., Microdroplets: A sea of applications? Lab on a Chip 2008, 8 (8), 1244-1254. Read online


Huebner, A.; Olguin, L. F.; Bratton, D.; Whyte, G.; Huck, W. T. S.; de Mello, A. J.; Edel, J. B.; Abell, C.; Hollfelder, F., Development of quantitative cell-based enzyme assays in microdroplets. Analytical Chemistry 2008, 80 (10), 3890-3896. Read online


Courtois, F.; Olguin, L. F.; Whyte, G.; Bratton, D.; Huck, W. T. S.; Abell, C.; Hollfelder, F., An integrated device for monitoring time-dependent in vitro expression from single genes in picolitre droplets. Chembiochem 2008, 9 (3), 439-446. Read online


Baxter, N. J.; Blackburn, G. M.; Marston, J. P.; Hounslow, A. M.; Cliff, M. J.; Bermel, W.; Williams, N. H.; Hollfelder, F.; Wemmer, D. E.; Waltho, J. P., Anionic charge is prioritized over geometry in aluminum and magnesium fluoride transition state analogs of phosphoryl transfer enzymes. Journal of the American Chemical Society 2008, 130 (12), 3952-3958. Read online

2007 (back to top)


Van Vliet, L. D.; Ellis, T.; Foley, P. J.; Liu, L. G.; Pfeffer, F. M.; Russell, R. A.; Warrener, R. N.; Hollfelder, F.; Waring, M. J., Molecular recognition of DNA by rigid [n]-polynorbornane-derived bifunctional intercalators: Synthesis and evaluation of their binding properties. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 2007, 50 (10), 2326-2340. Read online


Stein, V.; Sielaff, I.; Johnsson, K.; Hollfelder, F., A covalent chemical genotype-phenotype linkage for in vitro protein evolution. Chembiochem 2007, 8 (18), 2191-2194. Read online


Otten, L. G.; Schaffer, M. L.; Villiers, B. R.; Stachelhaus, T.; Hollfelder, F., An optimized ATP/PP(i)-exchange assay in 96-well format for screening of adenylation domains for applications in combinatorial biosynthesis. Biotechnol J 2007, 2 (2), 232-40. Read online


Nightingale, K. P.; Gendreizig, S.; White, D. A.; Bradbury, C.; Hollfelder, F.; Turner, B. M., Cross-talk between histone modifications in response to histone deacetylase inhibitors - MLL4 links histone H3 acetylation and histone H3K4 methylation. Journal of Biological Chemistry 2007, 282 (7), 4408-4416. Read online


Huebner, A.; Srisa-Art, M.; Holt, D.; Abell, C.; Hollfelder, F.; Demello, A. J.; Edel, J. B., Quantitative detection of protein expression in single cells using droplet microfluidics. Chemical Communications 2007,  (12), 1218-1220. Read online


Avenier, F.; Domingos, J. B.; Van Vliet, L. D.; Hollfelder, F., Polyethylene imine derivatives ('Synzymes') accelerate phosphate transfer in the absence of metal. Journal of the American Chemical Society 2007, 129 (24), 7611-7619. Read online

2006 (back to top)


Mathonet, P.; Leemhuis, H.; Griffiths, A. D.; Hollfelder, F., Towards compartmentalised selections of protein-protein interactions using a split-protein sensor. FEBS Journal 2006, 273, 253-253.


Baxter, N. J.; Olguin, L. F.; Golicnik, M.; Feng, G.; Hounslow, A. M.; Bermel, W.; Blackburn, G. M.; Hollfelder, F.; Waltho, J. P.; Williams, N. H., A Trojan horse transition state analogue generated by MgF3- formation in an enzyme active site. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2006, 103 (40), 14732-14737. Read online

Before 2005 (back to top)


Leemhuis, H.; Stein, V.; Griffiths, A. D.; Hollfelder, F., New genotype-phenotype linkages for directed evolution of functional proteins. Current Opinion in Structural Biology 2005, 15 (4), 472-478. Read online


Kirby, A. J.; Gesser, J. C.; Hollfelder, F.; Priebe, J. P.; Nome, F., Intramolecular general acid catalysis of sulfate transfer - Nucleophilic attack by oxyanions on the SO3- group. Canadian Journal of Chemistry-Revue Canadienne De Chimie 2005, 83 (9), 1629-1636. Read online


Lindner, A.; Hollfelder, F., The Evolution of Catalysis. ChemBioChem 2004, 5, 241. Read online


Guiry, P. J.; Hollfelder, F., Highlights from the 37th ESF/EUCHEM conference on stereochemistry, Bürgenstock, Switzerland, . Chem Commun (Camb) 2002, 21, XVIII-XIX. Read online


Zamble, D. B.; Miller, D. A.; Heddle, J. G.; Maxwell, A.; Walsh, C. T.; Hollfelder, F., In vitro characterization of DNA gyrase inhibition by microcin B17 analogs with altered bisheterocyclic sites. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2001, 98 (14), 7712-7717. Read online


Hollfelder, F.; Kirby, A. J.; Tawfik, D. S., On the magnitude and specificity of medium effects in enzyme-like catalysts for proton transfer. Journal of Organic Chemistry 2001, 66 (17), 5866-5874. Read online


Heddle, J. G.; Blance, S. J.; Zamble, D. B.; Hollfelder, F.; Miller, D. A.; Wentzell, L. M.; Walsh, C. T.; Maxwell, A., The antibiotic microcin B17 is a DNA gyrase poison: Characterisation of the mode of inhibition. Journal of Molecular Biology 2001, 307 (5), 1223-1234. Read online


Perez-Juste, J.; Hollfelder, F.; Kirby, A. J.; Engberts, J. B. F. N., Vesicles accelerate proton transfer from carbon up to 850-fold. Organic Letters 2000, 2 (2), 127-130. Read online


Kirby, A. J.; Hollfelder, F.; Tawfik, D. S., Nonspecific catalysis by protein surfaces. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology 2000, 83 (1-3), 173-180. Read online


Hollfelder, F.; Kirby, A. J.; Tawfik, D. S.; Kikuchi, K.; Hilvert, D., Characterization of proton-transfer catalysis by serum albumins. Journal of the American Chemical Society 2000, 122 (6), 1022-1029. Read online


Hollfelder, F.; Kirby, A. J.; Tawfik, D. S., Efficient catalysis of proton transfer by synzymes. Journal of the American Chemical Society 1997, 119 (40), 9578-9579. Read online


Genre-Grandpierre, A.; Tellier, C.; Loirat, M. J.; Blanchard, D.; Hodgson, D. R. W.; Hollfelder, F.; Kirby, A. J., Catalysis of the Kemp elimination by antibodies elicited against a cationic hapten. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters 1997, 7 (19), 2497-2502. Read online


Hollfelder, F.; Kirby, A. J.; Tawfik, D. S., Off-the-shelf proteins that rival tailor-made antibodies as catalysts. Nature 1996, 383 (6595), 60-63. Read online


Hollfelder, F.; Herschlag, D., The Nature of the Transition-State for Enzyme-Catalyzed Phosphoryl Transfer - Hydrolysis of O-Aryl Phosphorothioates by Alkaline-Phosphatase. Biochemistry 1995, 34 (38), 12255-12264. Read online


Dalby, K. N.; Kirby, A. J.; Hollfelder, F., Simple but Efficient Models for Nuclease Catalysis. Pure and Applied Chemistry 1994, 66 (4), 687-694. Read online


Chandler, A. J.; Hollfelder, F.; Kirby, A. J.; Ocarroll, F.; Stromberg, R., Models for Enzyme-Catalyzed Phosphate Transfer - Comparisons of Reactivity Towards a Neighboring Hydroxy Group for Phosphodiester Anions and Acids - General Base Catalysis of the Cyclization of a Hydroxyalkyl Phosphate Triester. Journal of the Chemical Society-Perkin Transactions 2 1994,  (2), 327-333. Read online


Dalby, K. N.; Kirby, A. J.; Hollfelder, F., Models for Nuclease Catalysis - Mechanisms for General Acid Catalysis of the Rapid Intramolecular Displacement of Methoxide from a Phosphate Diester. Journal of the Chemical Society-Perkin Transactions 2 1993,  (7), 1269-1281. Read online


Dalby, K. N.; Hollfelder, F.; Kirby, A. J., Electrostatic Catalysis of the Hydrolysis of a Phosphate Diester in Water. Journal of the Chemical Society-Chemical Communications 1992,  (24), 1770-1771. Read online